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Answered By: Amy Gilbert
Last Updated: Feb 01, 2018     Views: 0

Include the author, date, title (in italics) and the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document). If it is an online source, include "Retrieved from" and provide the URL

As Lecture Notes:

Hallam, A. Duality in consumer theory [PDF document]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site: index.html

As an online source:

Roberts, K. F. (1998). Federal regulations of chemicals in the environment [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from


Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide: Reference List: Electronic Sources (Web Publications). (n.d.). Retrieved October 9, 2015, from

The APA recommendations are not as helpful, but here is the answer straight from the source:

"The PowerPoint question is a classic one here at Style Expert headquarters. ... If the presentation was seen during a lecture or meeting and cannot be retrieved by the audience of your paper, it’s a personal communication, which means that no reference is needed, but it should be cited accordingly." Following the advice from the APA style blog, see 6.20 Personal Communications on page 179 of the American Psychological Association (Ed.). (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association." APA Style Blog: Asking the Right Question: How Can the Reader Find the Source? (n.d.). Retrieved October 9, 2015, from

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